Graphitized petroleum coke (GPC) - Calcined petroleum coke (CPC)

The History and Future Challenges of Calcined Petroleum Coke Production and Use in Aluminum Smelting

21/01/2023
20 min

Calcined petroleum coke is used for the production of carbon anodes in the Hall-He´roult aluminum smelting process due to a combination of low impurity levels, ready availability, and relatively low cost. This article provides a review of the history and use of calcined petroleum coke for anode production and describes the different calcining technologies used by the industry. The article discusses the impact of changes in crude oil quality and refining economics over the last 10 years as well as the impact on green petroleum coke quality and availability. The industry has adapted well to quality changes in recent times, and the blending of different quality cokes by smelters is becoming increasingly important. The world has a plentiful supply of green petroleum coke, but the next wave of aluminum smelting capacity growth will put further pressure on the supply of the higher quality cokes traditionally favored by the industry.
Calcined petroleum coke (CPC) has been used for more than 120 years to produce the carbon anodes sed in the Hall-He´roult aluminum electrolysis process. Several other forms of carbon were tested in the early stages, but none proved to have the right combination of low impurity levels, relatively low cost, and ready availability. Prebaked anodes are produced with 55–65% CPC, 13–15% coal tar pitch binder, and 20–30% recycled anode butts. The anodes are consumed at a net consumption rate of approximately 400 kg carbon/ton aluminum for modern smelting cells according to reaction 1. They provide an important source of heat for the electrolysis process, reducing the cell voltage and overall energy requirement relative to cells operating with nonconsumable anodes.1 2Al2O3 ‏ 3C ¼ 4Al ‏ 3CO2 (1)
CPC is produced by heating or calcining green petroleum coke (GPC) at temperatures greater than 1200C. The production of GPC has remained essentially the same since 1929 when the modern delayed coking process was born. This was followed in 1935 by the development of the rotary kiln calcining process, which is the most commonly used technology in the Western world. CPC production has increased significantly in China over the last 10 years, and shaft calcining is the dominant technology used in this region. The aluminum industry has had a ready supply of good-quality GPC and CPC for many years, but the situation has become more challenging over the last 10 years due to a general trend toward higher impurity levels resulting from changes in crude and refining economics. This article will review the history of GPC and CPC production and its use in aluminum smelting and provide comments on current and future challenges.

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01/05/2023

Ferrosilicon and Silicon Technology

In the liquid state, silicon has metallic properties regarding thermal and electrical conductivity, but in the solid state, it is a semiconductor and is called a metalloid. Due to its visual similarities in color and reflectance, it is often, misleadingly, referred to as a metal. Also when it comes to the production process, silicon may be produced in equipment used for metals production, such as manganese alloys and chromium alloys, and thus it is grouped with these alloys.